Title

The Bogs of Loyalsock State Forest

Authors

Harvey M. Katz

Item Type

Presentation

Location

Elaine Langone Center, Forum

Session

Ecology and Water Quality

Start Date

12-11-2016 1:30 PM

End Date

12-11-2016 4:00 PM

Keywords

bog, fen, hydrology, dominant species, Loyalsock Creek

Description

Along the Wisconsin Glacier's terminal moraine lies tens of thousands of bogs. About 100 of these are in the Loyalsock State Forest (LSF) between Ralston, on Route 14 and Hillsgrove, on Route 87 in Pennsylvania. This 35,000 acre (14,000 hectare) forest includes a variety of bog types. The area drains two watersheds, The Lycoming Creek watershed and the Loyalsock Creek watershed. Bogs are distinctive wetlands and have low pH and nutrients and are considered low productivity systems. This five year project, 2013-2017 is now nearing the end of year four. One of the characteristics, as data is collected to describe the bogs, is that bogs take many different shapes. As a general rule the bogs follow the traditional early, mid, and late successional character. The hydrology of bogs are distinctive and many bogs have waterways flowing through them, regardless of successional stage. These bogs are described as "Fens." Other bogs have no waterway visible and several are stand-alone bogs with no apparent connection to a run or stream. Size ranges from 1/4 acre (0.1 hectare) or less to as large as 80 acres (32 hectares). Out of the 64 wetlands examined to date, eight have Pennsylvania threatened and endangered plant species, seven in the Lycoming watershed and one in the Loyalsock watershed. The remaining 56 bogs lack these plants. At least two bogs are seasonal in that they hold water only after snow melt or heavy rain, like vernal ponds they dry up during the summer season. Two locations, out of the 64 are vernal ponds, and are co-located within the larger bog/forest area. As a general rule the bogs tend to be remote and can be difficult to find. Only one out of the 64 sites is near a wood road. The remaining 63 sites are deep into the woods. Use of satellite imagery is necessary to locate these bogs. Basic data to describe the location, physical size, hydrology, dominant plant type, insect/arachnid, fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammals are included in the bog description when found on the bog site. Water quality examination is currently limited to pH, total dissolved solids and temperature. This presentation will describe the bog types, including some historical influence to explain bog varieties. These range from human activities such as splash dam construction, usually from the 1870 through 1930 lumbering period, to the natural activities of beaver impoundment. Both satellite and color photos will be used to give the audience a sense of what these bogs look like. The presentation will end with a brief effort to understand how the bogs fit into our current concept of ecological services.

Language

eng

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Nov 12th, 1:30 PM Nov 12th, 4:00 PM

The Bogs of Loyalsock State Forest

Elaine Langone Center, Forum

Along the Wisconsin Glacier's terminal moraine lies tens of thousands of bogs. About 100 of these are in the Loyalsock State Forest (LSF) between Ralston, on Route 14 and Hillsgrove, on Route 87 in Pennsylvania. This 35,000 acre (14,000 hectare) forest includes a variety of bog types. The area drains two watersheds, The Lycoming Creek watershed and the Loyalsock Creek watershed. Bogs are distinctive wetlands and have low pH and nutrients and are considered low productivity systems. This five year project, 2013-2017 is now nearing the end of year four. One of the characteristics, as data is collected to describe the bogs, is that bogs take many different shapes. As a general rule the bogs follow the traditional early, mid, and late successional character. The hydrology of bogs are distinctive and many bogs have waterways flowing through them, regardless of successional stage. These bogs are described as "Fens." Other bogs have no waterway visible and several are stand-alone bogs with no apparent connection to a run or stream. Size ranges from 1/4 acre (0.1 hectare) or less to as large as 80 acres (32 hectares). Out of the 64 wetlands examined to date, eight have Pennsylvania threatened and endangered plant species, seven in the Lycoming watershed and one in the Loyalsock watershed. The remaining 56 bogs lack these plants. At least two bogs are seasonal in that they hold water only after snow melt or heavy rain, like vernal ponds they dry up during the summer season. Two locations, out of the 64 are vernal ponds, and are co-located within the larger bog/forest area. As a general rule the bogs tend to be remote and can be difficult to find. Only one out of the 64 sites is near a wood road. The remaining 63 sites are deep into the woods. Use of satellite imagery is necessary to locate these bogs. Basic data to describe the location, physical size, hydrology, dominant plant type, insect/arachnid, fish, amphibian, reptile, bird, and mammals are included in the bog description when found on the bog site. Water quality examination is currently limited to pH, total dissolved solids and temperature. This presentation will describe the bog types, including some historical influence to explain bog varieties. These range from human activities such as splash dam construction, usually from the 1870 through 1930 lumbering period, to the natural activities of beaver impoundment. Both satellite and color photos will be used to give the audience a sense of what these bogs look like. The presentation will end with a brief effort to understand how the bogs fit into our current concept of ecological services.