Date of Thesis

Fall 2021


Understanding photophysical phenomena has provided important breakthroughs in scientific research and in general applications in society, particularly in the form of new colored dyes and improvements in telecommunication. This study seeks to investigate the intersection of two well-understood photophysical phenomena, solvatochromism and excitonic coupling, in a single-molecule system. To do this, the betaine 4,5-bis(1-methylpyridin-1-ium-4-yl)anthracene-1,8-bis(olate) (1) was designated as a synthetic target and a retrosynthesis planned out. Employing synthetic strategies designed by Rathore and Navale to synthesize 1,8-dibromo-4,5-dimethoxyanthracene (9), followed by synthetic strategies from Diemer et. al. in the synthesis of 4-(phenyloxido)-N-methylpyridinium (POMP), 1 was synthesized in a 7-step linear sequence in a 24% overall yield. Herein, we report the details of this synthesis which will allow for a future detailed photophysical analysis of 1.


Anthracene, Zwitterion, Photophysical Properties, Synthesis, Excitonic Coupling, Betaine Dyes

Access Type

Masters Thesis (Bucknell Access Only)

Degree Type

Master of Science



First Advisor

Hasan Arslan