Date of Thesis



Micelle-forming bile salts have previously been shown to be effective pseudo-stationary phases for separating the chiral isomers of binaphthyl compounds with micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). Here, cholate micelles are systematically investigated via electrophoretic separations and NMR using R, S-1, 1¿- binaphthyl- 2, 2¿-diylhydrogenphosphate (BNDHP) as a model chiral analyte. The pH, temperature, and concentration of BNDHP were systematically varied while monitoring the chiral resolution obtained with MEKC and the chemical shift of various protons in NMR. NMR data for each proton on BNDHP is monitored as a function of cholate concentration: as cholate monomers begin to aggregate and the analyte molecules begin to sample the micelle aggregate we observe changes in the cholate methyl and S-BNDHP proton chemical shifts. From such NMR data, the apparent CMC of cholate at pH 12 is found to be about 13-14 mM, but this value decreases at higher pH, suggesting that more extreme pHs may give rise to more effective separations. In general, CMCs increase with temperature indicating that one may be able to obtain better separations at lower temperatures. S-BNDHP concentrations ranging from 50 ¿M to 400 ¿M (pH 12.8) gave rise to apparent cholate CMC values from 10 mM to 8 mM, respectively, indicating that S-BNDHP, the chiral analyte molecule, may play an active role in stabilizing cholate aggregates. In all, these data show that NMR can be used to systematically investigate a complex multi-variable landscape of potential optimizations of chiral separations.


NMR, Micelle, cholate, electrophoretic separations, MEKC, capillary electrophoresis, bile salt, bile acid, BNDHP

Access Type

Masters Thesis (Bucknell Access Only)

Degree Type

Master of Science



First Advisor

David Rovnyak

Second Advisor

Timothy Strein