## Honors Theses

#### Title

Decomposing Blaschke Products And Polynomials

2013

#### Description

The goal of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of complex polynomials and Blaschke products, two very important function classes in mathematics. For a polynomial, $f,$ of degree $n,$ we study when it is possible to write $f$ as a composition $f=g\circ h$, where $g$ and $h$ are polynomials, each of degree less than $n.$ A polynomial is defined to be \emph{decomposable }if such an $h$ and $g$ exist, and a polynomial is said to be \emph{indecomposable} if no such $h$ and $g$ exist. We apply the results of Rickards in \cite{key-2}. We show that $$C_{n}=\{(z_{1},z_{2},...,z_{n})\in\mathbb{C}^{n}\,|\,(z-z_{1})(z-z_{2})...(z-z_{n})\,\mbox{is decomposable}\},$$ has measure $0$ when considered a subset of $\mathbb{R}^{2n}.$ Using this we prove the stronger result that $$D_{n}=\{(z_{1},z_{2},...,z_{n})\in\mathbb{C}^{n}\,|\,\mbox{There exists\,}a\in\mathbb{C}\,\,\mbox{with}\,\,(z-z_{1})(z-z_{2})...(z-z_{n})(z-a)\,\mbox{decomposable}\},$$ also has measure zero when considered a subset of $\mathbb{R}^{2n}.$ We show that for any polynomial $p$, there exists an $a\in\mathbb{C}$ such that $p(z)(z-a)$ is indecomposable, and we also examine the case of $D_{5}$ in detail. The main work of this paper studies finite Blaschke products, analytic functions on $\overline{\mathbb{D}}$ that map $\partial\mathbb{D}$ to $\partial\mathbb{D}.$ In analogy with polynomials, we discuss when a degree $n$ Blaschke product, $B,$ can be written as a composition $C\circ D$, where $C$ and $D$ are finite Blaschke products, each of degree less than $n.$ Decomposable and indecomposable are defined analogously. Our main results are divided into two sections. First, we equate a condition on the zeros of the Blaschke product with the existence of a decomposition where the right-hand factor, $D,$ has degree $2.$ We also equate decomposability of a Blaschke product, $B,$ with the existence of a Poncelet curve, whose foci are a subset of the zeros of $B,$ such that the Poncelet curve satisfies certain tangency conditions. This result is hard to apply in general, but has a very nice geometric interpretation when we desire a composition where the right-hand factor is degree 2 or 3. Our second section of finite Blaschke product results builds off of the work of Cowen in \cite{key-3}. For a finite Blaschke product $B,$ Cowen defines the so-called monodromy group, $G_{B},$ of the finite Blaschke product. He then equates the decomposability of a finite Blaschke product, $B,$ with the existence of a nontrivial partition, $\mathcal{P},$ of the branches of $B^{-1}(z),$ such that $G_{B}$ respects $\mathcal{P}$. We present an in-depth analysis of how to calculate $G_{B}$, extending Cowen's description. These methods allow us to equate the existence of a decomposition where the left-hand factor has degree 2, with a simple condition on the critical points of the Blaschke product. In addition we are able to put a condition of the structure of $G_{B}$ for any decomposable Blaschke product satisfying certain normalization conditions. The final section of this paper discusses how one can put the results of the paper into practice to determine, if a particular Blaschke product is decomposable. We compare three major algorithms. The first is a brute force technique where one searches through the zero set of $B$ for subsets which could be the zero set of $D$, exhaustively searching for a successful decomposition $B(z)=C(D(z)).$ The second algorithm involves simply examining the cardinality of the image, under $B,$ of the set of critical points of $B.$ For a degree $n$ Blaschke product, $B,$ if this cardinality is greater than $\frac{n}{2}$, the Blaschke product is indecomposable. The final algorithm attempts to apply the geometric interpretation of decomposability given by our theorem concerning the existence of a particular Poncelet curve. The final two algorithms can be implemented easily with the use of an HTML

#### Keywords

Blaschke products, Polynomials, Composition

#### Access Type

Honors Thesis (Bucknell Access Only)

#### Degree Type

Bachelor of Science

Mathematics