Date of Thesis



There have been numerous councils throughout the Catholic Church?s history. From the First Council of Nicaea in 325 CE to Vatican II in 1962, only a few centuries have passed without any major church doctrinal change. Following hand in hand with changes in doctrine came the bifurcation of the Christian Church into the Roman CatholicChurch and the Orthodox Church. The first split came in 325 CE with Arianism. Arius of Alexandria and his followers did not agree with the Catholic Church?s viewpoint that the son, Jesus, should be on equal footing with the Father and the Holy Spirit. Constantine the Great brought the Arianism debate to the First Council of Nicaea,which declared Arianism a heretical religion. The following Catholic council?s decisions separated the two Churches even more, eventually creating the formal separation of the Church during the East-West Schism in the middle of the 11th century. Although the twoChurches constantly tried to unite, the Churches hit speed bumps along the way. Eventually, the 1274 Second Council of Lyons officially united the two Churches, even if only for an ephemeral time. At first glance, it might not seem that much resulted from the 1274 Second Council of Lyons. Almost immediately after the council?s ruling, the two Churches split again. Little is known as to why the 1274 Second Council of Lyons ultimately failed in its unification attempt. In this thesis, I will examine the churches of the Little Metropolis at Athens, Merbaka in the Argolid, and Agioi Theodoroi in Athens. In detailing the architectural features of these buildings, I will reconstruct the church building program in association with the 1274 Second Council of Lyons. I will also compare these churchesusing historical sources to keep the sociological, religious, political, and historical context accurate.


Byzantine architecture, Medieval architecture, Little Metropolis, Merbaka, Agioi Theodoroi, Michael VIII, Palaeologos, Charles de Anjou, Ecumenical Councils, 1274 Second Council of Lyons, 4th Crusade, East-West Schism, Marsyas, Zodiac, Calendar, friezes, Spolia, religion, classics, Larson, Daly, Brazinski, Saint Theodores, filioque, Frankish archaeology, Chartres, Morea, Sanders, Panagia Gorgoepikoos, Cyriacus of Ancona, the Chronicle of Morea, Roman de Troie, Mystra, Villehardouin, Naked Satyr, Churches, Byzantine, Medieval, Athens, Greece

Access Type

Honors Thesis


Classics & Mediterranean Studies

First Advisor

Stephanie Larson



Included in

Classics Commons