Response Bias Using Two-Stage Data Collection: A study of elderly participants in a program.
Researchers examining the effects of programs, in this case a state-level pharmaceutical assistance program for the elderly, sometimes must rely on multiple methods of data collection. Two-stage data collection (e.g., a telephone interview followed by a mail questionnaire) was used to obtain a full range of information. Older age groups were found to participate less frequently in the telephone interview, while certain demographic factors characterized mail questionnaire nonparticipants, all of which supports past research. Results also show that those in the poorest health are less likely to participate in the mail survey. Combining the two methods did not result in high attrition, suggesting that innovation can be successfully employed. Knowledge of the bias associated with each method will aid in targeting special groups.
Goodfellow, Marianne; Kierman, Nancy-Ellen; Ahern, Frank; and Smyer, Michael A.. "Response Bias Using Two-Stage Data Collection: A study of elderly participants in a program.." Evaluation Review (1988) : 638-654.