Characterization of Halyomorpha Halys (Brown Marmorated Stink Bug) Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions and Their Role in Secondary Organic Aerosol Formation
The formation of aerosols is a key component in understanding cloud formation in the context of radiative forcings and global climate modeling. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are a significant source of aerosols, yet there is still much to be learned about their structures, sources, and interactions. The aims of this project were to identify the BVOCs found in the defense chemicals of the brown marmorated stink bug Halymorpha halys and quantify them using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and test whether oxidation of these compounds by ozone-promoted aerosol and cloud seed formation. The bugs were tested under two conditions: agitation by asphyxiation and direct glandular exposure. Tridecane, 2(5H)-furanone 5-ethyl, and (E)-2-decenal were identified as the three most abundant compounds. H. halys were also tested in the agitated condition in a smog chamber. It was found that in the presence of 100-180 ppm ozone, secondary aerosols do form. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a cloud condensation nuclei counter (CCNC) were used to characterize the secondary aerosols that formed. This reaction resulted in 0.23 mu g/bug of particulate mass. It was also found that these secondary organic aerosol particles could act as cloud condensation nuclei. At a supersaturation of 1%, we found a kappa value of 0.09. Once regional populations of these stink bugs stablilize and the populations estimates can be made, the additional impacts of their contribution to regional air quality can be calculated. Implications: Halymorpha halys (brown marmorated stink bugs) are a relatively new invasive species introduced in the United States near Allentown, Pennsylvania. The authors chemically speciated the bugs' defense pheromones and found that tridecane, 5-ethyl-2(5H)-furanone, and (E)-2-decenal dominated their emissions. Their defense emissions were reacted with atmospherically relevant concentrations of ozone and resulted in 0.23 g of particulate matter per emission per bug. Due to the large population of these bugs in some regions, these emissions could contribute appreciably to a region's PM2.5 (particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter 2.5 m) levels.