One Pot, Two Step Sequence Converting Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Directly to Radical Trap-Assisted Atom Transfer Radical Coupling
Monobrominated polystyrene (PStBr) chains were prepared using standard atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) procedures at 80 °C in THF, with monomer conversions allowed to proceed to approximately 40%. At this time, additional copper catalyst, reducing agent, and ligand were added to the unpurified reaction mixture, and the reaction was allowed to proceed at 50 °C in an atom transfer radical coupling (ATRC) phase. During this phase, polymerization continued to occur as well as coupling; expected due to the substantial amount of residual monomer remaining. This was confirmed using gel permeation chromatography (GPC), which showed increases in molecular weight not matching a simple doubling of the PStBr formed during ATRP, and an increase in monomer conversion after the second phase. When the radical trap 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP) was added to the ATRC phase, no further monomer conversion occurred and the resulting product showed a doubling of peak molecular weight (Mp), consistent with a radical trap-assisted ATRC (RTA-ATRC) reaction.
Tillman, Eric. "One Pot, Two Step Sequence Converting Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization Directly to Radical Trap-Assisted Atom Transfer Radical Coupling." Polymer 54, no. 21 (2013) : 5560-5567.