Synthesis of Macrocyclic Polymers Formed via Intramolecular Radical Trap-Assisted Atom Transfer Radical Coupling
Acs Macro Letters
The synthesis of cyclic polystyrene (Pst) with an alkoxyamine functionality has been accomplished by intramolecular radical coupling in the presence of a nitroso radical trap Linear alpha,omega-dibrominated polystyrene, produced by the atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of styrene using a dibrominated initiator, was subjected to chain-end activation via the atom transfer radical coupling (ATRC) process under pseudodilute conditions in the presence of 2-methyl-2-nitrosopropane (MNP). This radical trap-assisted, intramolecular ATRC (RTA-ATRC) produced cyclic polymers in greater than 90% yields possessing < G > values in the 0.8-0.9 range as determined by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Thermal-induced opening of the cycles, made possible by the incorporated alkoxyamine, resulted in a return to the original apparent molecular weight, further supporting the formation of cyclic polymers in the RTA-ATRC reaction. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) provided direct confirmation of the cyclic architecture and the incorporation of the nitroso group into the macrocycle RTA-ATRC cyclizations carried out with faster rates of polymer addition into the redox active solution and/or in the presence of a much larger excess of MNP (up to a 250:1 ratio of MNP:C-Br chain end) still yielded cyclic polymers that contained alkoxyamine functionality.
Voter, Andrew F.; Tillman, Eric S.; Findeis, Peter M.; and Radzinski, Scott C.. "Synthesis of Macrocyclic Polymers Formed via Intramolecular Radical Trap-Assisted Atom Transfer Radical Coupling." Acs Macro Letters 1, no. 8 (2012) : 1066-1070.