A factor-analytic reinterpretation of the Clark-Trow "educational philosophies"
Journal of College Student Development
Each of four principal components analyses (n = 3,944) incorporated student self-ratings (Most accurate to Least accurate) on one of the four Clark-Trow educational philosophies: Vocational, Academic, Collegiate, Nonconformist. The analyses of these 25-variable correlation matrices yielded 2 factors differentially associated with educational philosophy: Sociability versus Independence (replacing Clark-Trow's "Identification with the College") and Liberalism versus Conservatism (replacing Clark-Trow's "Involvement with Ideas"). The Vocational philosophy was associated primarily with Conservatism, the Collegiate with Sociability, and the Nonconformist with Liberalism; the Academic was moderately associated with both Independence and Liberalism.
Wilder, D.H.; McKeegan, H.F.; and Midkiff, Jr., Robert McKinley. "A factor-analytic reinterpretation of the Clark-Trow "educational philosophies"." Journal of College Student Development 41, no. 5 (2000) : 513-529.