A causal model of mathematics performance in early adolescence: the role of sex
Using path analysis, the present investigation was done to clarify possible causal linkages among general scholastic aptitude, academic achievement in mathematics, self-concept of ability, and performance on a mathematics examination. Subjects were 122 eighth-grade students who completed a mathematics examination as well as a measure of self-concept of ability. Aptitude and achievement measures were obtained from school records. Analysis showed sex differences in prediction of performance on the mathematics examination. For boys, this performance could be predicted from scholastic aptitude and previous achievement in mathematics. For girls, performance only could be predicted from previous achievement in mathematics. These results indicate that the direction, strength, and magnitude of relations among these variables differed for boys and girls, while mean levels of performance did not.
Midkiff, Jr., Robert McKinley; Burke, J.P.; and Helmstadter, G.C.. "A causal model of mathematics performance in early adolescence: the role of sex." Psychological Reports 64, no. 1 (1989) : 167-176.